How important are essential fatty acids when it comes to our health?
Fats get a bad press when we talk about diet, but they are, of course, vital for health. As one of the key building blocks for our bodies, they form part of our cells, form the basis of many biochemical reactions that support our physiology, and can be used to create energy. Of course, some fats are more helpful that others, and indeed some are essential to have in our diet, since our bodies cannot synthesise them – the ‘omega-3’ and ‘omega-6’ families of fats.
In the history of our human evolution we’ve seen rapid changes to our diets in the past 100-150 years
This is especially true when it comes to our intake of omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants from vegetarian sources . Ready made meals and processed food means we are eating more vegetable oils, meat, sugar and starch, and less complex carbohydrates, fibre and fresh vegetables [2, 3]. These unhealthy trends have been exacerbated by a 50 % decrease in physical activity.
In brief, our diet during the last 100-150 years has turned from balanced and anti-inflammatory to unbalanced and pro-inflammatory.
When our bodies are in a state of ill health they are often in what we call a pro-inflammatory state.
This is where it helps to know more about the Omega 6 to Omega 3 fat ratio that your body needs to maintain good health. The ideal ratio is 3:1 when in fact it is close to 14:1 in the average European diet and 20:1 in American diets! A high ratio (e.g. 14:1) can lead to inflammation and inflammation is a component of many diseases.
Impact on our health
Having the wrong balance of essential fatty acids (EFA’s) in our diet can have a profound impact on our health.
Conditions such a cardiovascular disease (CVD) , dementia , depression , and autoimmunity , have been heavily associated with an intake of too much omega-6 relative to omega-3. Focusing on increasing essential acids through your diet and often supplementation too, can be very beneficial for general health and as part of an effective protocol for the management of chronic disease.
Key signs and symptoms of EFA deficiency include:
• Dry, scaly, itchy skin which is prone to dermatitis and dandruff 
• Poor memory, learning , mood  behaviour, and associated conditions 
• Vision problems (12)
• Chronic inflammation (13)
• Cardiovascular complications (14)
• Low immunity, increase susceptibility to infections, and poor wound healing (15)
Vegetarians & Vegans – possible deficiencies in Omega 3
Vegetarian or vegan diets tend to contain only marginal levels of EPA and DHA. The main vegan dietary sources include microalgae such as spirulina  and seaweed. Seaweed (e.g. wakame or dulse) contains a range of omega 3,6 and 9 fatty acids, including DHA and EPA. However, the lipid concentration of dried seaweed, for instance is only about 1-5%. Generally speaking, these vegan sources provide such low levels of Omega-3  that they cannot really be relied upon to provide the levels that are needed in the absence of animal intake. This means that the plasma level of EPA and DHA tends to be a lot lower in vegetarians and vegans than in meat eaters.
Another factor to consider is the conversion process that takes place in the fatty acid pathways. When you eat the likes of linseed/flaxeeds, hemp, chia seeds or walnuts, all rich in Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) these foods are converted in the body using a number of enzymes to obtain EPA and DHA (directly obtained from eating fish, algae, krill). However, many studies show that the approx. conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA may be as little as 8% and 4% respectively. 
This is where supplementation from a good quality source such as “Zinzino BalanceOil Vegan” may be beneficial. What I really like about this oil is its excellent quality. It contains marine algae oil combined with polyphenols from extra virgin pre-harvest olive oil along with vegan Vitamin D. This combination ensures maximum absorption. You might be taking a vegan oil but is it really absorbing well into your body cells?
What foods supply our essential fats? And remember it is all about getting the right balance!
Target is 3:1 (Omega 6 to 3)
Safflower, sunflower, sesame, grains (LA – Linoleic Acid)
Evening primrose oil, borage oil, spirulina (GLA – Gamma Linolenic Acid)
Animal fat e.g. meat, dairy (AA – Arachidonic acid)
Linseed/Flaxseed, hemp, chia, walnuts (ALA – Alpha Linolenic Acid)
Oily fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines), algae, krill (EPA, DHA)
Test to find out your ratio
Like I said earlier you might be taking a vegan or fish oil but how well is it absorbing into your body cells. Do you know if you are deficient in your essential fatty acids? The only way to really find out is to test.
Omega-3 (EPA+DHA) Level should be above 8 % – what is yours?
Omega-6 (AA)/Omega-3 (EPA) Balance should be 3:1 – what is yours? Is it as high as the European average of 14:1? Aim for 3:1 to help improve your health (as mentioned earlier)
Cell Membrane Fluidity = Saturated fat/Omega-3 (EPA+DHA) should be below 4:1
Think of your cells like a glass, if they are ridged and not fluid then nutrients will struggle to get in and toxins will struggle to get out resulting in more damage to cells. Improving the fluidity of cell membranes improves overall health in the examples given earlier.
Mental Strength = Omega-6 (AA)/Omega-3 (EPA+DHA) – aim for ratio of 1:1. The right balance of Omega’s is important for mood, memory and concentration.
How to test?
You can find out the above information by doing a very simple pin prick blood test at home, and cost is from €149 which includes the balance oils. The test is done by Vitas Laboratory in Oslo established in 1994. Very reputable lab with WHO, University of Oxford, University of Cambridge as their key clients.
For more information or a sample report please contact firstname.lastname@example.org or call +353871266525
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- Drewnowski and Popkin, 1997. Nutr Rev; 55 (2): 31-43.
- Harris SW. The Omega-3 index as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The Americal Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;87(6):1997S-2002S
- Shinto L et al. A Randomised Placebo-Controlled pilot trial of Omega-3 fatty acids and alpha lipoic acid in Alzheimer’s Disease J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;38(1):10.3233/JAD-130722
- Kraguljac NV et al. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychoparmacol Bull.2009;42(3):39-54
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- Kaczmarski M et al. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in treatment of atopic dermatitis in children. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2013;30(2):103-107
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- Montgomery P et al. Low blood long chain omega-3 fatty acids in UK children are associated with poor cognitive performance and behaviour: a cross-sectional analysis from the DOLAB study. PLoS One 2013;8(6): e66697
- Ziegler AB et al. Lack of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids causes synapse dysfunction in the drosophila visual system. Mollereau B, ed. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10 (8):e0135353
- Patterson E et al. Health implications of high dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2012;2012:539426
- Bowen KJ et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: are there benefits? Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc med. 2016;18(11):69
- Kiecolt-Glaser JK et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and stress-induced immune dysregulation: implications for wound healing. Military medicine. 2014;179(11):129-133
- Diraman H. Fatty Acid Profile of Spirulina platensis used a food supplement. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture – Bamidgeh. 2009;61(2):134-142
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